process of coal extraction upsc

Coal in India Wikipedia

Coal in India Wikipedia

Coal production of India. Coal in India has been mined since 1774, and India is the second largest producer and consumer of coal after China, mining million metric tons ( million short tons) in FY 30% of coal is imported. Due to demand, supply mismatch and poor quality with high ash content, India imports coking coal to meet the shortage of domestic supply.

Types of Coal: Peat, Lignite, Bituminous Coal Anthracite Coal PMF IAS

Types of Coal: Peat, Lignite, Bituminous Coal Anthracite Coal PMF IAS

Coals are classified into three main ranks, or types: lignite, bituminous coal, and anthracite. These classifications are based on the amount of carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen present in the coal. Coals other constituents include hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, ash, and sulfur. Some of the undesirable chemical constituents include chlorine and sodium.

RSTV: THE BIG PICTURE INDIA'S COAL SECTOR REFORMS InsightsIAS

RSTV: THE BIG PICTURE INDIA'S COAL SECTOR REFORMS InsightsIAS

Introduction: The Centre launched the auction of 41 coal blocks for commercial mining, with the Prime Minister formally giving the green signal and expressed optimism that it will help in reducing dependency on imports. The move is aimed at reviving the auction process, which has remained in limbo with only 31 coal blocks having . Continue reading "RSTV: THE BIG PICTURE INDIA'S COAL ...

Coal Block Allocations and the 2015 Bill PRS Legislative Research

Coal Block Allocations and the 2015 Bill PRS Legislative Research

The 2015 Bill primarily seeks to allocate the coal mines that were declared illegal by the Supreme Court. It provides details for the auction process, compensation for the prior allottees, the process for transfer of mines and details of authorities that would conduct the auction. In December 2014, the ministry notified the Coal Mines (Special ...

The Shale Gas INSIGHTSIAS

The Shale Gas INSIGHTSIAS

Shale gas and oil are unconventional natural resources.. They are found at 2,5005,000 metres below the earth's surface. They are deeper in comparison to conventional crude oil found at 1,500 metres.. The process of extracting shale oil and gas requires deep vertical drilling followed by horizontal drilling. The most common way to extract shale gas is 'hydraulic fracturing' (fracking ...

How is Coal Formed? Definition, Mining Uses with Videos of Coal ...

How is Coal Formed? Definition, Mining Uses with Videos of Coal ...

Uses of Coal. It is mainly used to generate heat and electricity. It is used in households and in industries to accomplish various tasks. It is the cheapest source of power fuel. The iron and steel industry depends heavily on fossil fuel for energy. It is also used to produce useful products such as coke, tar, and coal gas.

Illegal Mining of Minor Minerals INSIGHTSIAS

Illegal Mining of Minor Minerals INSIGHTSIAS

GS Paper 3 Syllabus: Environment Conservation Source: The Hindu Editorial section Context: India has grossly underestimated the issue of illegal mining, which damages the environment and causes revenue loss. Direction: Just go through the article once, to understand the issue. Can note a few points. Status: Demand for minor minerals such as sand and . Continue reading "Illegal Mining of ...

Insights into Editorial: How severe is India's coal crisis, and what is ...

Insights into Editorial: How severe is India's coal crisis, and what is ...

Coal and lignite fired thermal power plants account for about 54 per cent of India's installed power generation capacity but currently account for about 70 per cent of power generated in the country. Importance of Coal to India: Coal is the most important and abundant fossil fuel in India. It accounts for 55% of the country's energy needs ...

UPSC Essentials | Mains answer practice — GS 3 (Week 27)

UPSC Essentials | Mains answer practice — GS 3 (Week 27)

UPSC Essentials will provide some guiding points or ideas as a thought process that will help you to ... — Rat hole mining is a method of extracting coal from narrow, horizontal seams, prevalent in Meghalaya. Advertisement — The term "rat hole" refers to the narrow pits dug into the ground, typically just large enough for one person to ...

Balancing Act: RatHole Mining, Bans, and Ethical Quandaries in ...

Balancing Act: RatHole Mining, Bans, and Ethical Quandaries in ...

Rathole mining stands as a distinctive method for extracting coal from narrow, horizontal seams, particularly prevalent in the region of Meghalaya. The term "rat hole" denotes the small, constricted pits that miners delve into, typically only spacious enough for an individual to descend and procure coal manually. Mining Process:

Coal mining methods | PPT SlideShare

Coal mining methods | PPT SlideShare

3. Coal Mining is the term that encompasses the physical extraction or removal of coal from the Earth's Surface. When coal is used as fuel in power generation, it is referred to as Steaming or Thermal coal while those which are used to create coke for steel manufacturing is referred to as Coking or Metallurgical Coal. Coal can be mined by both Surface and Underground Mining methods. Surface ...

Tackling Methane Emission दृष्टि आईएएस

Tackling Methane Emission दृष्टि आईएएस

That process would also require onethird less water, making it more economical. ... UPSC Civil Services Examination, Previous Year Questions (PYQs): ... Coalbed methane is the pure methane gas extracted from coal seams, while shale gas is a mixture of propane and butane only that can be extracted from finegrained sedimentary rocks. In India ...

Coal Bed Methane (CBM) Optimize IAS

Coal Bed Methane (CBM) Optimize IAS

Coal Bed Methane, or CBM is seen as one of the alternatives. CBM is an unconventional natural gas that occurs in coal beds in adsorbed form during coalification process (transformation of plant material into coal) and is rich in methane content. It can be used for power generation, running internal combustion engines and as domestic fuel on ...

Sustainable Mining दृष्टि आईएएस

Sustainable Mining दृष्टि आईएएस

Sustainable Mining. This article is based on "Mining in India equals selling the family gold" which was published in The Hindu on 19/01/2021. It talks about the issues related to the present state of mining practices and the need to adopt sustainable mining. India's National Mineral Policy 2019 states that "natural resources, including ...

[Indepth] [Updated] Coal Sector in India IAS EXPRESS

[Indepth] [Updated] Coal Sector in India IAS EXPRESS

Mountaintop mining: the coal is mined after the mountaintop is removed to reveal the seam. Valley fills are used for storing the removed overburden in case of limited disposal alternative. Room and Pillar coal mining: in this method, the coal is mined from a horizontal plane and an array of rooms and pillars. Longwall mining: it is a type of ...

Karnataka Iron Ore Mining दृष्टि आईएएस

Karnataka Iron Ore Mining दृष्टि आईएएस

What is EAuction in Iron Ore Mining? About: An eauction is a transaction between sellers (the auctioneers) and bidders (suppliers in the business to business scenarios) that takes place on an electronic marketplace.; Process: After the completion of every bid, a threemember monitoring committee, appointed by the Supreme Court, publishes a document that lists the details of the quality of ...

Manufactured Sand दृष्टि आईएएस

Manufactured Sand दृष्टि आईएएस

Coal India Limited (CIL) is making headlines for its innovative solution to the sand shortage problem. The company is using crushed rock fines (crusher dust), sand from Overburden (OB) of coal mines and soil removed during opencast coal mining, to produce Manufactured Sand (MSand). This not only repurposes waste materials but also reduces the ...

Mineral Resources: Iron Ore distribution in India UPSC LotusArise

Mineral Resources: Iron Ore distribution in India UPSC LotusArise

In this article, You will read Mineral Resources in India (Iron Ore Distribution in India) for UPSC IAS.. Mineral Resources. A mineral is a naturally occurring substance, representable by a chemical formula, that is usually solid and inorganic, and has a crystal structure.. More than two thousand minerals have been identified and most of these are inorganic, which are formed by the various ...

Mining Sector in India ClearIAS

Mining Sector in India ClearIAS

The mining sector's GDP contribution only swings between % and %, but based on the GDP of the entire industrial sector, it ranges from 10% to 11%. Even smallscale mining adds 6% to the overall cost of mineral production. About 700,000 people have employment chances in the mining sector in India. Also read: Coal Mining in India

Coal Sector in India ClearIAS

Coal Sector in India ClearIAS

Introduction. India has the fourth largest coal reserves in the world. It is estimated to be around billion tonnes of which not even 1 billion tonnes is extracted in a year. The majority of extracted coal is used for electricity production. The remaining coal is used for cement, steel and other industries.

What is Commercial Mining? INSIGHTSIAS

What is Commercial Mining? INSIGHTSIAS

Commercial mining allows the private sector to mine coal commercially without placing any enduse restrictions. The private firms have the option of either gasification of the coal or exporting it. They can also use it in their own enduse plants or sell them in the markets. The government expects more than Rs 33,000 crore of capital ...

Importance of Coal in India INSIGHTSIAS

Importance of Coal in India INSIGHTSIAS

Remaining matter in the coal is called volatile material such as moisture, ash content and sulfur content. These are gradually removed by metamorphic process pressure and heat. Bituminous coal has special significance because it contains Bitumen which on heating in absence of oxygen is converted into coking coal.

What is Petroleum? Petroleum Refining, Definition, Formation Uses

What is Petroleum? Petroleum Refining, Definition, Formation Uses

This process of separation of various constituents of petroleum is called petroleum refining. This is done in oil refineries. It is a threestep process. The first step is separation where the crude oil is separated into various components through the distillation process. The heavier constituents remain settled at the bottom whereas lighter ...

What Is OpenPit Mining? Definition and Environmental Impact Treehugger

What Is OpenPit Mining? Definition and Environmental Impact Treehugger

Openpit mining is commonly used to extract metallic ores like aluminum, bauxite, copper, gold, copper, and iron as well as nonmetallic ores like coal, uranium, and phosphate. Openpit mining is ...

Coal gasification: INSIGHTSIAS

Coal gasification: INSIGHTSIAS

It is the process of producing syngas, a mixture consisting of carbon monoxide (CO), hydrogen (H2), carbon dioxide (CO2), natural gas (CH4), and water vapour (H2O). During gasification, coal is blown with oxygen and steam while also being heated under high pressure. During the reaction, oxygen and water molecules oxidize the coal and produce ...

Coal Sector Reforms दृष्टि आईएएस

Coal Sector Reforms दृष्टि आईएएस

Unlocking coal mining for private players is a step forward to attain selfreliance in the coal sector. However, for sustainable utilization of coal, there is a need to look into these reforms from a multidimensional viewpoint. Announced Reforms In Coal Sector. Commercial mining of coal allowed, with 50 blocks to be offered to the private sector.

Coal Gasification UPSC Notes History, Process, Underground Coal ...

Coal Gasification UPSC Notes History, Process, Underground Coal ...

The method can be used to extract resources that would otherwise be too expensive to extract. It also provides a viable alternative to traditional coal mining techniques. UCG has a lower environmental and social impact than conventional coal mining with gasification, yet environmental issues exist, including the possibility for aquifer pollution.

Coal Gasification दृष्टि आईएएस

Coal Gasification दृष्टि आईएएस

Process: Coal gasification is a process in which coal is partially oxidised with air, oxygen, steam or carbon dioxide to form a fuel gas. This gas is then used instead of piped natural gas, methane and others for deriving energy. Insitu gasification of coal or Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) is the technique of converting coal into ...

Rat hole mining UPSC.

Rat hole mining UPSC.

Narrow, Horizontal Seams: Rathole mining involves extracting coal from thin, horizontal seams, which are prevalent in Meghalaya. These seams are often less than 2 meters in thickness. Primitive Extraction Techniques: Miners typically create narrow pits (referred to as "rat holes") into the ground, allowing only one person at a time to descend ...

Oil Refineries in India List, Map, State wise List 2023

Oil Refineries in India List, Map, State wise List 2023

UPSC Exam. UPSC Exam; UPSC Exam 2024. UPSC Exam 2024; UPSC Syllabus 2024. ... sector of the oil and gas industry since oil refineries effectively act as the second step in the crude oil production process after the actual extraction of crude oil upstream. Distillation, the first step in the refining process, involves heating crude oil to ...

Critical Minerals for India दृष्टि आईएएस

Critical Minerals for India दृष्टि आईएएस

UPSC Civil Services Examination Previous Year Question (PYQ) Mains. Q. Despite India being one of the countries of Gondwanaland, its mining industry contributes much less to its Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in percentage. Discuss. (2021) Q. "In spite of adverse environmental impact, coal mining is still inevitable for development". Discuss ...

Coal Sector in India दृष्टि आईएएस

Coal Sector in India दृष्टि आईएएस

History of Coal Mining in India. India has a long history of commercial coal mining covering nearly 220 years starting from 1774 by M/s Sumner and Heatly of East India Company in the Raniganj Coalfield along the Western bank of river Damodar.; However, for about a century the growth of Indian coal mining remained sluggish for want of demand but the introduction of steam locomotives in 1853 ...